Military

Military

AUTHENTICITY IS UNCONDITIONALLY GUARANTEED


 2000 Louisiana Avenue  | Venue 15696|  
New Orleans, Louisiana, 70115
Manuscript Society and UACC Dealer: RD124



BEAUREGARD, PIERRE G.T. Check Accomplished and Signed, "G.T. Beauregard," in the amount of $150 to "Bearer" drawn on the Mutual National Bank (now the site of Harrah’s Casino) 2 1/2x8 inches; cancellation slices (not affecting signature). New Orleans, 24 July 1879




Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard, May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893) was a Louisiana-born American military officer, politician, inventor, writer, civil servant, and the first prominent general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Today he is commonly referred to as P. G. T. Beauregard, but he rarely used his first name as an adult. He signed correspondence as G. T. Beauregard.

Trained as a civil engineer at the United States Military Academy, Beauregard served with distinction as an engineer in the Mexican-American War. Following a brief appointment at West Point in 1861, after the South seceded, he resigned from the US Army and became the first Confederate brigadier general. He commanded the defenses of Charleston, South Carolina, at the start of the Civil War at Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861. Three months later he won the First Battle of Bull Run near Manassas, Virginia.

Beauregard commanded armies in the Western Theater, including at the Battle of Shiloh in Tennessee, and the Siege of Corinth in northern Mississippi. He returned to Charleston and defended it in 1863 from repeated naval and land attacks by Union forces. His greatest achievement was saving the important industrial city of Petersburg, Virginia in June 1864, and thus the nearby Confederate capital of Richmond, from assaults by overwhelmingly superior Union Army forces.

But, his influence over Confederate strategy was lessened by his poor professional relationships with President Jefferson Davis and other senior generals and officials. In April 1865, Beauregard and his commander, General Joseph E. Johnston, convinced Davis and the remaining cabinet members that the war needed to end. Johnston surrendered most of the remaining armies of the Confederacy, including Beauregard and his men, to Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman.

Following his military career, Beauregard returned to Louisiana, where he served as a railroad executive. He became wealthy because of his role in promoting the Louisiana Lottery.




The Mutual National Bank, of New Orleans was located at 106 Canal Street the current site of Harrah’s Casino and Hotel.  The New Orleans and the New South, published by Metropolitan Publishing Company in 1888, reports:

Here is The directors of this institution are men whose names are as much a guarantee for it as its capital is. These gentlemen are: Lloyd R. Coleman, President of the Mechanics' and Traders' Insurance Companv; L. C. Fallon, of J. L. Phipps & Co., Coffee Merchants; Paul Kourchy, President Merchants' Mutual Insurance Company; John T. Hardie, of John T. Hardie & Co., cotton factors; I. L. Lyons, of I. L. Lyons & Co., wholesale druggists; G. W. Sentell, ot G. W. Sentell & Co., cotton factors; J. A. Shakspeare, of Shakspeare, Smith & Co., iron founders; B. W. Tavlor, of John Henry & Co., wholesale boots and shoes; J. B. Woods, agent St. Louis and New Orleans Anchor Line.

John T. Hardie is President: Llovd R. Coleman, Vice-President; Joseph Mitchel, Cashier. It has $30P,cx» capital and $100,000 surplus.

The Mutual National Bank receives deposits, negotiates loans, discounts commercial paper, makes collections, deals in New York exchange and transacts generally all kinds of legitimate banking. The confidence of the public in this institution is practically illustrated by the heavy deposits made with it ($760,000), and bv the number of its accommodations to business men, shown by the extent of its loans and discounts, some $729,000. Its total resources are over $1,150,000.

It was organized in 1871 and has had most excellent management ever since. Its New York correspondents are the National City Bank and the Mechanics' National. Mr. Hardie, the President, is, as has been said, the well-known cotton factor. He is a trustee of the Tulane University and otherwise distinguished. Cashier Mitchel has held that position since the bank opened, and is well known in financial circles.

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William W. Belknap - four page document dated March 8, 1875, War Department, Washington D.C., and signed by William W. Belknap (1818-93) as U.S. Secretary of War.  The document, in care of General William T. Sherman, notifies Louis Garesche that the President (U.S. Grant) has conditionally accepted him to West Point and that if he accepts, he should report to West Point on June 18, 1875 to take an entrance exam.   
It reads:

War Department
March 8, 1875

Sir: You are hereby informed, that the President has conditionally selected you for appointment as Cadet of the United States Military Academy, at West Point, New York.

Should you desire the appointment, you will report in person to the Superintendent of the Academy on the day of 15th  day of June, 1875 to serve until the following January, at which time you will be examined before the Academic Board of the Academy. Should the result of this examination be favorable, and the reports of your personal, military, and moral deportment be satisfactory, your warrant of appointment, to be dated July 1st, 1875, will be delivered to you; but should the result of your examination, or your conduct reports be unfavorable, you will be discharged from the military service, unless otherwise recommended, for special reasons, by the Academic Board, but will receive an allowance for travelling expenses to your home.

        Your attention is particularly directed to the accompanying circular, and it is to be distinctly understood that this notification confers upon you no right to enter the Military Academy unless your qualifications agree fully with its requirements, and unless you report for examination within the time specified.

        You are requested to immediately inform the Department of your acceptance or declination of the contemplated appointment upon the conditions annexed.

WM W. Belknap
Secretary of War
Louis Ganesche
Gave General WT Sherman
St. Louis, Mo.
Cadet At Large

The remaining portions of the document are historically outstanding as they outline the qualifications, character, duties, pay, etc. expected from a cadet, and the last page sets out the Books Used and Course of Study at the Academy in 1875.

This appointment was a thank you for Civil War Services of Garesche's father, Lt. Colonel Julius P. Garesche (1821-63). Julius was a 1841 West Point graduate and Chief of Staff to General who was KIA at the Battle of Stone River on December 31, 1862, his head being knocked off by a cannon ball.  Louis, the recipient of this appointment, authored and published his father's biography in 1887. Louis did in fact enter West Point in 1875, but did not graduate with the 1879 class.  The document is soiled, has splitting at most folds, and some tape stains, including that over a portion of Belknaps' signature. Still, a nice association 1875 West Point Admit- Signed:  US Sec. War  C.W. Genl.

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[Browning, John Moses] – (1855-1926).  A   vintage legal file folder containing original correspondence relating to a French patent Application, Serial No. 225386filed Sep 20, 1926, for a "Feed Box for Machine Guns" and "especially an automatic machine gun of the Browning type, and the invention relates more particularly to a magazine of the type adapted to contain a cartridge feed belt which is withdrawn therefrom by means of the mechanism of the gun ... "





This is corresponding to a US Patent Application Serial No.83584. The attorney's file last dated Aug 18, 1927, states the application was abandoned in November that year. The archive contains 17 pages of descriptive text in French, 31 in English. There is one French patent permit with stamps. In very good condition, this rare archive presents a fabulous research opportunity but Browning has not signed this application.
The original legal folder is 14 1/4" x 9 3/4", 16 pages in French, 30 pages in English.  All text no drawings.  One French patent permit with stamps. (Colt factory legal file)     RARE. 

John Moses Browning (January 23, 1855 – November 26, 1926), born in Ogden, Utah, was an American firearms designer who developed many varieties of military and civilian firearms, cartridges, and gun mechanisms, many of which are still in use around the world. He is regarded as one of the most successful firearms designers of the 20th century, in the development of modern automatic and semi-automatic firearms, and is credited with 128 gun patents. He made his first firearm at age 13 in his father's gun shop, and was awarded his first patent on October 7, 1879 at the age of 24.
Browning influenced nearly all categories of firearms design. He invented or made significant improvements to single-shot, lever-action, and slide-action, rifles and shotguns. His most significant contributions were arguably in the area of autoloading firearms. He developed the first autoloading pistols that were both reliable and compact by inventing the telescoping bolt, integrating the bolt and barrel shroud into what is known as the pistol slide. Browning's telescoping bolt design is now found on nearly every modern semi-automatic pistol, as well as several modern fully automatic weapons. He also developed the first gas-operated machine gun, the Colt-Browning Model 1895—a system that surpassed mechanical recoil operation to become the standard for most high-power self-loading firearm designs worldwide. Browning also made significant contributions to automatic cannon development.

Browning's most successful designs include the M1911 pistol, the Browning Hi Power pistol, the Browning .50 caliber machine gun, the Browning Automatic Rifle, and the Browning Auto-5, a ground-breaking semi-automatic shotgun. These arms are nearly identical today to those assembled by Browning, with only minor changes in detail and cosmetics. Even today, John Browning's guns are still some of the most copied guns in the world.  $790.00 -- Buy Now



Henry Dearborn (1751–1829) - Revolutionary War Colonel and the War of 1812 Major General who served as Secretary of War under Thomas Jefferson. Letter signed “H. Dearborn,” one page, 8 x 9.75, March 7, 1804, letter to James McHenry:



War Department, March 9th, 1804

Sir,

I have recently been informed that a quantity of Gunpowder, belonging to the United States, was, several years since, received by sundry gentlement [sic] from the magazine in Baltimore, to be accounted for --- An as your name is mentioned as one of the company. I take the liberty of requesting you to be so obliging as to take such measures as may be proper for having the business adjusted; for a trich. I presume, it will only be necessary to ascertain the quantity received & the price of powder at the time. With respectful,

Consideration I am Sir Your
Humble Servant
H. Dearborn”
James McHenry, Esq.

In very good condition, with intersecting folds, two passing through signature, scattered toning, several areas of paper loss to edges, and a few pencil remnants.

Henry Dearborn  (February 23, 1751 – June 6, 1829) was an American physician, a statesman and a veteran of both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. Born to Simon Dearborn and Sarah Marston in North Hampton, New Hampshire, he spent much of his youth in Epping, where he attended public schools. He studied medicine and opened a practice on the square in Nottingham in 1772.


[James McHenry] (November 16, 1753 – May 3, 1816) was an Irish-born American statesman. McHenry was a signer of the United States Constitution from Maryland and the namesake of Fort McHenry. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress from Maryland, and the third United States Secretary of War (1796–1800), under the first and second presidents, George Washington, (administration: 1789-1797) and John Adams, (administration: 1797-1801). 

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KARL DONITZ (1891 - 1980) German admiral who headed the U-Boat arm of the German Navy, later succeeded Hitler as Fuehrer after Hitler's suicide. Partly-printed D.S., 1p. 4to., [May 9, 1945], a copy of an ornately calligraphy copy of Donitz's "Final Order" to the Wehrmacht as Reichspresident, boldly signed at bottom, "Donitz 28-4-1974." Donitz commends his men for defending Germany's borders, and states that at midnight the armistice had been signed and all hostilities had come to an end.

World War II final order of the German Armed Forces, issued on 9 May 1945 by Admiral Karl Doniz, stating in part:

... By command of Admiral Dönitz the Armed Forces have given up the hopeless struggle. A heroic fight that has lasted for nearly six years thus comes to an end ... the German Armed Forces have succumbed to overwhelming superior strength ... Every German soldier, sailor and airman can therefore lay aside his arms with justifiable pride and turn to the task of ensuring the everlasting life of our nation ... To show obedience, discipline and absolute loyalty to our Fatherland, bleeding from innumerable wounds, is the sacred duty our dead impose upon us all.[18]

As noted by Dönitz in his Memoirs: "I thought then, and I still think, that those words are both appropriate and just."  Karl Dönitz, Memoirs (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1959), page 466 

Der letzte wehrmachtbericht des zweiten weltkrieges
Aus dem Hauptquartier des grossadmirals / den  9. Mai 1945
Das Oberkommando der Wehrmacht gibt bekannt
In ostpreussen haben deutsche divisionen noch gestern die Weichsel-mündung und den Westteil der Frischen Nehrung tapfer verteidigt, wobei sich die 7 Division besonders auszeichnete.  Dem Oberbefehlshaber, General der Panzertruppen Von Saucken, wurden in Anerkennung der vorbildlichen Haltung seiner Soldaten das Eichenlaub mit Schwertern und Brillanten zum Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzeez verliehen.
Als vorgeschobenes Bollwerk fesselten unsere Armeen in Kurland unter dem bewahrten Oberbefehl des Generalobersten Hilpert monatelang überlegene sowjetische Schützen und panzer-verbände und erwarben sich in sechs grossen Schlachten unvergänglichen Ruhum. Sie haben jede vorzeitig Übergabe abgelehnt.   In voller Ordnung wurden mit den nach Westen noch ausfliegenden Flugzeugen nur Versehrte und Väter kinderreicher Familien abtransportiert.  Die Stäbe und Offiziere verblieben bei ihren Truppen. Um Mitternacht wurden von der deutschen Seite, entsprechend den unterzeichneten Bedingungen, der Kampf und jede Bewegung eingestellt.
Die Verteidiger von Breslau, die über zwei Monate land den Angriffen der Sowjets standhielten, erlagen in letzter Stunde nach heldenhaftem Kampf der feindlichen Ubermacht.
Auch an der Südost- und Ostfront, von Brünn bis an die Elbe, haben alle höheren Kommando-Behörden den Befehl zum Einstellen des Kampfes erhalten. Eine tschechische Aufstandsbewegung - sie umfasst ganz Böhem und Mähren - kann die Durchführung der Kapitulationsbedingungen in diesem Raum gefährden. Meldungen über die Lage bei den Heeresgruppen Löhr, Rendulic und Schörner liegen beim Oberkommando zur Stunde noch nicht vor.
Tapfer haben die Verteidiger der Atlantikstützpunkte, die Truppen in Nord-Norwegen und die --- Besatzungen der ägäischen Inseln in Gehorsam und Disziplin die -- Waffenehre des Deutschen bewahrt.
Seit Mitternacht schweigen nun an den Fronten die Waffen.  Auf Befehl des Grossadmirals hat die Wehrmacht den aussichtslos gewordenen Kampf eingestellt.  Damit ist das fast sechsjährige, ehrenhafte Ringen zu Ende.  Es hat uns gross Siege, aber auch schwere Niederlagen gebracht.  Die deutsche Wehrmacht ist am Ende einer gewaltigen Übermacht ehrenvoll unterlegen.   Der deutsche Soldat hat, getreu seinem Eid, im besten Einsatz für sein Volk für immer Unvergessliches geleistet.  Die Heimat hat ihn bis zuletzt mit allen Kräften unter schwersten Opfern unterstützt. Die einmalige Leistung von Front und Heimat wird in einem späteren Urteil der Geschichte ihre endgültige Würdigung finden.
Den Leistungen und Opfern der deutschen Soldaten zu Wasser, zu Lande und in der Luft wird auch der Gegner die Achtung nicht versagen.  Jeder Soldat kann deshalb die Waffen aufrecht und stolz ause der Hand legen und in der schwersten Stunde unserer Geshichte tapfer und zuversichtlich an die Arbeit gehen fur das ewige Leben unseres Volkes. 
Die Wehrmacht gedenkt in dieser schweren Stunde ihrer vor dem Feind gebliebenen Kameraden. Die Toten verpflichten zu bedingungslosen Treue, zu Gehorsam und Disziplin gegenüber dem aus zahllosen Wunden blutenden Vaterland.
Donitz
24. 8. 74

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[McClellan, George B.]  - American Civil War, authentic, original unsigned war-date General Orders No. 182.  The order is dated November 5, 1862 from Assistant Adjutant General Edward D. Townsend.   The order reads:
"By direction of the President of the United States, it is ordered that Major General McClellan be relieved from the command of the Army of the Potomac, and that Major General Burnside take the command of that Army.   By Order of the Secretary of War: E.D. Townsend, Assistant Adjutant General"  

The unsigned vintage document condition is good.  


George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 – October 29, 1885) was a major general during the American Civil War and the Democratic presidential nominee in 1864, who later served as Governor of New Jersey. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly (November 1861 to March 1862) as the general-in-chief of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union. Although McClellan was meticulous in his planning and preparations, these characteristics may have hampered his ability to challenge aggressive opponents in a fast-moving battlefield environment. He chronically overestimated the strength of enemy units and was reluctant to apply principles of mass, frequently leaving large portions of his army unengaged at decisive points.

McClellan's Peninsula Campaign in 1862 ended in failure, with retreats away from attacks by General Robert E. Lee's smaller Army of Northern Virginia and an unfulfilled plan to seize the Confederate capital of Richmond. His performance at the bloody Battle of Antietam blunted Lee's invasion of Maryland, but allowed Lee to eke out a precarious tactical draw and avoid destruction, despite being outnumbered. As a result, McClellan's leadership skills during battles were questioned by President Abraham Lincoln, who eventually removed him from command, first as general-in-chief, then from the Army of the Potomac. Lincoln offered this famous evaluation of McClellan: "If he can't fight himself, he excels in making others ready to fight."  Indeed, McClellan was the most popular of that army's commanders with its soldiers, who felt that he had their morale and well-being as paramount concerns.

General McClellan also failed to maintain the trust of Lincoln, and proved to be frustratingly derisive of, and insubordinate to, his commander-in-chief. When McClellan failed to pursue Lee aggressively after Antietam, Lincoln ordered that he be removed from command on November 5, 1862. Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside assumed command of the Army of the Potomac on November 7, 1862.  McClellan wrote to his wife, "Those in whose judgment I rely tell me that I fought the battle splendidly and that it was a masterpiece of art. ... I feel I have done all that can be asked in twice saving the country. ... I feel some little pride in having, with a beaten & demoralized army, defeated Lee so utterly. ... Well, one of these days history will I trust do me justice."

Secretary Stanton ordered McClellan to report to Trenton, New Jersey, for further orders, although none were issued. As the war progressed, there were various calls to return Little Mac to an important command, following the Union defeats at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, as Robert E. Lee moved north at the start of the Gettysburg Campaign, and as Jubal Early threatened Washington in 1864. When Ulysses S. Grant became general-in-chief, he discussed returning McClellan to an unspecified position. But all of these opportunities were impossible, given the opposition within the administration and the knowledge that McClellan posed a potential political threat. McClellan worked for months on a lengthy report describing his two major campaigns and his successes in organizing the Army, replying to his critics and justifying his actions by accusing the administration of undercutting him and denying him necessary reinforcements. The War Department was reluctant to publish his report because, just after completing it in October 1863, McClellan openly declared his entrance to the political stage as a Democrat. 

McClellan was nominated by the Democrats to run against Abraham Lincoln in the 1864 U.S. presidential election. Following the example of Winfield Scott, he ran as a U.S. Army general still on active duty; he did not resign his commission until election day, November 8, 1864. He supported continuation of the war and restoration of the Union (though not the abolition of slavery), but the party platform, written by Copperhead Clement Vallandigham of Ohio, was opposed to this position. The platform called for an immediate cessation of hostilities and a negotiated settlement with the Confederacy. McClellan was forced to repudiate the platform, which made his campaign inconsistent and difficult. He also was not helped by the party's choice for vice president, George H. Pendleton, a peace candidate from Ohio.   The deep division in the party, the unity of the Republicans (running under the label "National Union Party"), and the military successes by Union forces in the fall of 1864 doomed McClellan's candidacy. Lincoln won the election handily, with 212 Electoral College votes to 21 and a popular vote of 2,218,388 to 1,812,807 or 55% to 45%.  For all his popularity with the troops, McClellan failed to secure their support and the military vote went to Lincoln nearly 3-1. Lincoln's share of the vote in the Army of the Potomac was 70%

 At the conclusion of the war, McClellan and his family went to Europe (not returning until 1868), during which he did not participate in politics. When he returned, the Democratic Party expressed some interest in nominating him for president again, but when it became clear that Ulysses S. Grant would be the Republican candidate, this interest died. McClellan worked on engineering projects in New York City and was offered the position of president of the newly formed University of California. McClellan was appointed chief engineer of the New York City Department of Docks in 1870. Evidently the position did not demand his full-time attention because, starting in 1872, he also served as the president of the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad. He and his family then embarked on another three-year stay in Europe (1873–75)
In March 1877, McClellan was nominated by Governor Lucius Robinson to be the first Superintendent of Public Works but was rejected by the New York State Senate as being "incompetent for the position."  In 1877, McClellan was nominated by the Democrats for Governor of New Jersey, an action that took him by surprise because he had not expressed an interest in the position. He accepted the nomination, was elected, and served a single term from 1878 to 1881, a tenure marked by careful, conservative executive management and minimal political rancor. The concluding chapter of his political career was his strong support in 1884 for the election of Grover Cleveland. He sought the position of secretary of war in Cleveland's cabinet, for which he was well qualified, but political rivals from New Jersey were able to block his nomination.

McClellan's final years were devoted to traveling and writing, including his memoirs McClellan's Own Story (published posthumously in 1887) in which he stridently defended his conduct during the war. He died unexpectedly of a heart attack at age 58 at Orange, New Jersey, after having suffered from chest pains for a few weeks. His final words, at 3 a.m., October 29, 1885, were, "I feel easy now. Thank you." He was buried at Riverview Cemetery, Trenton, New Jersey

The majority of modern authorities have assessed McClellan as a poor battlefield general. However, a small faction of historians maintain that he was a highly capable commander, whose reputation suffered unfairly at the hands of pro-Lincoln partisans who needed a scapegoat for the Union's setbacks. His legacy therefore defies easy categorization. After the war, Ulysses S. Grant was asked to evaluate McClellan as a general. He replied, "McClellan is to me one of the mysteries of the war."   $85.00  Buy Now










Gideon Welles (1802 - 1878) Abraham Lincoln's Secretary of the Navy who proposed the blockade of Southern ports and the construction of an ironclad fleet. War-date partly-printed manuscript L.S. as Secretary of the Navy, 1p. 4to., Washington, Oct.14, 1863 an official communication from Secretary Welles to: "Acting Ensign Henry L. Ransom" on Navy Department letterhead, ordering him to: "Report to Commo. Montgomery on the 23d inst. for a passage on the U.S.S. Circassian to New Orleans, La. and on your arrival there report to Commo. H. H. Bell for duty in the West Gulf Blockading Squadron". Some light toning and staining, otherwise in good condition.

Boldly endorsed twice on the face of the letter by Commodore "J.B. Montgomery", along with the following endorsements and notes: "Reported for a passage Oct. 23d 1863", signed "Wm. B. Eaton Comdg" [Acting Lieutenant Commanding the Supply Steamer Circassian], along with an A.N.S. signed "H.H. Bell", advising "Reported Nov. 12, 1863. Report to Actg Master Legon for duty on board the Antona", as well as docket "Reported Nov. 12th Jno a. Davis / Act. Ensign Ex. Officer" [U.S.S. Antona]. Although Acting Ensign Ransom arrived on the Antona without incident, he was killed in action on January 14, 1864.



Henry H. Bell (13 April 1808 – 11 January 1868) was an admiral in the United States Navy, served in the American Civil War, and was the highest ranking American Naval officer killed by the Japanese (Bakufu) until 73 years later at Pearl Harbour. Bell died under suspicious circumstances at Kobe trying to force Japan open to trade. The Naval logs tell the tale that the whaling longboat used by the Admiral to go ashore was set upon by inclimant weather, while the IMO records Ōsaka-wan (including Kobe) as one of the safest anchorages in the world, naturally protected from rough seas.



John Berrien Montgomery  - United States Naval Officer. A native of New Jersey, he joined the United States Navy in June 1812, several days before the outbreak of the War of 1812. Assigned at the rank of Midshipman, he served with distinction throughout the war, including service aboard the "USS Niagara" during the September 10, 1813 Battle of Lake Erie. Commissioned to the rank of Lieutenant in 1818, he continued to rise through the ranks until 1845, when he was given command of the "USS Portsmouth" in the Navy's Pacific Fleet. With the outbreak of the Mexican War, the Portsmouth was ordered to Northern California where she anchored in the San Francisco Bay. On July 9, 1846, Commander Montgomery led a small force of men from his ship into the coastal town of Yerba Buena and raised the American flag in the town plaza to capture it without firing a shot. In 1847, the town he captured would be officially re-named San Francisco. Promoted to Captain in 1853, he remained in active service and by the outbreak of the Civil War, was in command of the Pacific Fleet. In 1862, he was promoted to Commodore and assigned as commander of the Boston Navy Yard until 1863 when he took command of the Washington Navy Yard. At war's end, he was promoted to Rear Admiral and given command of the Naval Station at Sacket's Harbor, New York, a post he held until his retirement in 1869

Gideon Welles (July 1, 1802 – February 11, 1878) was the United States Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869. His buildup of the Navy to successfully execute blockades of Southern ports was a key component of the Northern victory of the Civil War. Welles was also instrumental in the Navy's creation of the Medal of Honor.

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